Desde la noche que el pleno de la Junta Central Electoral (JCE) dio a conocer el borrador de resolución sobre la aplicación del porcentaje de las reservas de las candidaturas, el debate entre los representantes de la oposición y del oficialismo ha tomado el centro de atención de la sociedad política nacional.

En el gobernante Partido Revolucionario Moderno (PRM), desde su presidente hasta el delegado ante la JCE, respaldan la aplicación de ese mecanismo, indicando que fortalecería la democracia interna de los partidos.

“En el 2020 fuimos los afectados de esa decisión del TSE que nos obligó a reformular toda la boleta. Aprendimos de ese evento que la decisión fortalece los procesos democráticos dentro de los partidos. Hoy somos coherentes y debemos apoyar el precedente”, expresó el delegado político del PRM, Sigmund Freund.

Presidente de la JCE, Román Jáquez Liranzo.

Presidente de la JCE, Román Jáquez Liranzo.

 

Lo que propone ese borrador de resolución es que las reservas de candidaturas que al efecto deban ser realizadas por los partidos, agrupaciones y movimientos políticos dentro del porcentaje del 20% que establece la ley, deberá ser realizada por cada nivel de elección, a diferencia de como se venía aplicando, que era de un 20% de las candidaturas a nivel universal.

Mientras que la sentencia a la que Freund hace referencia ocurrió en 2019 cuando el Tribunal Superior Electoral (TSE) anuló las reservas del PRM al determinar que ese partido aplicó mal lo establecido en la ley de partidos, ya que según la intención de ese organismo el texto legislativo “no dispone una reserva del 20% del total de las nominaciones, sino que las mismas deben ser segregadas por cada nivel de elección”.

Dicen no es vinculante

Contrario al oficialismo, la oposición política se mostró en contra de que ese sea el criterio que aplique la JCE para el próximo proceso electoral e incluso indicaron que esa entidad está “actuando en favor del oficialismo”, por lo que se muestran en contra de la propuesta de resolución del órgano electoral.

“La JCE hace interpretación incorrecta al artículo 58 de la Ley 33-18, que establece la reserva será por el “máximo de candidaturas a cargos de elección popular equivalente al 20% del total de nominaciones para puestos electivos”. Mal mensaje, cambiar y ceder al oficialismo, en contra de ley y partidos; se busca torpedear un gran bloque de alianza opositora, cosa que no podrán”, indicó Javier Ubiera, suplente de delegado ante la JCE de la Fuerza del Pueblo

En la tarde del jueves, los dirigentes de distintos partidos opositores, entre ellos Ubiera, y José Dantes Díaz, miembro del comité político del Partido de la Liberación Dominicana (PLD), se apersonaron a la sede de la JCE e indicaron que esa sentencia “no es vinculante”, debido a que existe un texto legislativo “más reciente” que la misma.

Dirigentes de distintos partidos de oposición indicaron que la sentencia del Tribunal Superior Electoral (TSE) en la que la Junta Central Electoral (JCE) se basó para proponer el borrón de la resolución que regirá la reserva de las candidaturas "no es vinculante" debido a que existe una texto legislativo "más reciente" que la misma.VIDEO

Dirigentes de distintos partidos de oposición indicaron que la sentencia del Tribunal Superior Electoral (TSE) en la que la Junta Central Electoral (JCE) se basó para proponer el borrón de la resolución que regirá la reserva de las candidaturas «no es vinculante» debido a que existe una texto legislativo «más reciente» que la misma.

Según Dantés Díaz, el artículo 106 de la nueva Ley Electoral 20-23 señala que las alianzas son posibles en “una, en varias o en todas las provincias”.

“Por vía de consecuencia, creemos que la Junta Central tiene el tiempo para entrar en diálogo con los partidos políticos, porque repito no hay ninguna decisión del Congreso Nacional que límite que el 20% de las reservas por cada nivel de las elecciones ni una provincia ni demarcación en particular”, explicó el representante del PLD, y añadió que el artículo 341 de esa ley deroga toda “disposición que le sea contraría”.

Dantes, acompañado de varios representantes de partidos opositores como la Fuerza del Pueblo y el Partido Revolucionario Dominicano (PRD), indicó que tampoco el artículo 58 de la ley 33-18, sobre Partidos, Movimientos y Agrupaciones Políticas, limita el 20% de las reservas.

También el dirigente de la Fuerza Nacional Progresista (FNP), Vinicio Castillo Semán, llamó a la JCE a convocar una audiencia pública con todos los partidos políticos para discutir el tema, ya que el proyecto de resolución enviado a los partidos políticos viola la Constitución y la Ley de Régimen Electoral, al limitar y restringir la capacidad de los partidos para concertar alianzas y coaliciones electorales.

La Ley de Partidos

El artículo 58 de la ley 33-18 señala que el organismo de máxima dirección colegiada de todo partido, agrupación o movimiento político, con la aprobación de sus integrantes, tiene el derecho de reservar a conveniencia de su organización, incluyendo los puestos cedidos a dirigentes de la misma organización o por acuerdos, alianzas o fusiones con otros, un máximo de candidaturas a cargos de elección popular equivalente al 20% del total de las nominaciones para los puestos de senadores, diputados, alcaldes, regidores, directores, subdirectores y vocales de distritos municipales establecidas por la Constitución y las leyes.

Los límites

De aprobarse esa resolución tal cual, los partidos sólo podrán reservar plazas para las candidaturas de hasta 38 diputados y seis senadores; lo cual dificultaría el tema de negociación de alianzas y coaliciones entre las organizaciones políticas; además de 32 alcaldes.

Un voto disidente

Dentro de la decisión del pleno de establecer ese mecanismo, Dolores Fernández tuvo un voto disidente y en sus razonamientos explicó que la Constitución señala la protección de la libertad de la “autoorganización” de los partidos.

Fernández resalta que el artículo 58 es de carácter enunciativo que hace mención de los cargos electivos en los niveles de elección existentes en nuestra legislación electoral, mas no establece de manera tácita o expresa que debe haber una aplicación de las reservas por niveles electorales;

“Más aun, la Ley en su artículo 58 habla de ‘Puestos’, no de ‘Niveles’, como debería hacerlo si esa fuera la intención o mandato de la norma, tal como establece taxativamente el artículo 96 de la Ley Orgánica de Régimen Electoral No. 20-23, a partir de la cual se estima que cuando se haga referencia a los Niveles de elección”, indica expresamente Dolores.

La resolución

La resolución señala que en cuanto a las reservas de las candidaturas del nivel presidencial, las organizaciones podrán reservarse la candidatura presidencial y vicepresidencial con miras a la concertación de alianzas de conformidad con la ley.

En cuanto a los plazos para la definición y depósito de las reservas de candidaturas, dispone que deberán ser definidas internamente por las organizaciones políticas, por lo menos 30 días antes del inicio de la precampaña, es decir, a más tardar el 2 de junio de 2023 y presentadas mediante escrito a la Junta Central Electoral a más tardar el 17 de junio de 2023, o sea, 15 días antes de la apertura de la precampaña electoral.

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